As a symbol of his new regime, he built a new capital, al-Qata'i, north of the old capital Fustat. As governor of Fustat he oversaw the province's garrison and was the head of the Muslim community as recognized in his title of "overseer of the army and the Friday prayer" (wāli al-jaysh waʾl-ṣalāt), but the fiscal administration, in particular the collection of the land tax (kharāj) was in the hands of the powerful veteran administrator Ibn al-Mudabbir. This mosque was built for Ahmad ibn Tulun, son of a Turkish slave of the Abbasid caliph al-Ma'mun. , According to al-Balawi, from his various wives and concubines, Ibn Tulun had 33 children, 17 sons and 16 daughters. The American University in Cairo Press; Illustrated edition (December 13, 2015), Reviewed in the United States on March 28, 2017. In 834 its early Muslim elite, the Arab settler families (jund) of Fustat, lost their privileges and government pay, and power passed to officials sent by the Abbasid court.  Ibn Tulun hastily withdrew from Tarsus, but as more information about the situation in Egypt began to arrive, clarifying that Abbas posed no real threat, Ibn Tulun decided to spend more time in Syria and consolidate his authority.  The latter had been appointed as fiscal agent (ʿāmil) already since ca. His attempt in autumn 883 to bring Tarsus to heel failed, and he fell sick. , Ibn Tulun's stepfather Bakbak was murdered in 869/70, but luckily for him in the summer of 871 the supervision of Egypt passed to his father-in-law Yarjukh. This report, however, does not appear in Ibn al-Daya or al-Balawi, and may be spurious.  Ibn Tulun's growing power was manifested in the establishment of a new palace city to the northeast of Fustat, called al-Qata'i, in 870. Only the governor of Aleppo, Sima al-Tawil, resisted, and fled to Antioch. Modern scholars see in Ibn Tulun's policies a "careful balancing act" and notice that he never fully severed himself from the Caliphate, remaining conspicuously loyal to the person of al-Mu'tamid, who, after all, was a powerless figurehead. The Mosque of Ahmad Ibn Tulun is one of the most important architectural monuments of Cairo and of the Islamic world as a whole. Thus by 872 Ibn Tulun had assumed control of all branches of the administration in Egypt, becoming de facto independent of the Abbasid central government. Your recently viewed items and featured recommendations, Select the department you want to search in, + $15.94 Shipping & Import Fees Deposit to Germany. Most of the officials employed by Ibn Tulun were like him trained in the caliphal court at Samarra. Abbas fled west with his supporters, and from Barqa tried to take over Ifriqiya. I. One of his followers, Abu Ruh Sukun, rebelled in the oases in 873/4 and was successful enough for Ibn Tulun to offer him an amnesty. Several medieval authors wrote about Ahmad ibn Tulun. , In the early 870s, a major change took place in the Abbasid government, as the Abbasid prince al-Muwaffaq emerged as the de facto regent of the empire, sidelining his brother, Caliph al-Mu'tamid (r. 870–892). Harun too was a weak ruler, and although a revolt by his uncle Rabi'ah in Alexandria was suppressed, the Tulunids were unable to confront the attacks of the Qarmatians which began at the same time. The first, originally built by 'Amr, the conqueror of the country, in a.h. 21 (a.d. 642), was re-built and extended by many When Ibn al-Shaykh refused, the Caliph ordered Ibn Tulun to march against him. Khumarawayh was able to preserve his authority against the Abbasid attempt to overthrow him at the Battle of Tawahin and even made additional territorial gains, but his extravagant spending exhausted the treasury, and his assassination in 896 began the rapid decline of the Tulunid regime. It is advised to wear something light from cotton or linen, comfortable and put on sunblock during your time in Egypt in the summer and wear comfortable footwear like a closed-toe shoe to sustain the sandy terrain. The Tulunid army, which eventually grew to reportedly 100,000 men—other sources give a breakdown of 24,000 Turkish ghilmān and 42,000 black African and Greek slaves, as well as a mercenary corps composed mostly of Greeks—became the foundation of Ibn Tulun's power and independence. Ibn Tulun had his rival duly denounced in sermons in the mosques across the Tulunid domains, while the Abbasid regent responded in kind with a ritual denunciation of Ibn Tulun. Tarek Swelim obtained his Ph.D. in Islamic art and architecture from Harvard in 1994. It is about 26,318 square meters in size and that is why it is considered the third-largest mosque all around the world.  These policies were continued by later Egypt-based regimes, the Ikhshidids (935–969) and eventually the Fatimids (969–1171), who likewise used Egypt's wealth to establish control over parts or even most of Syria. Al-Muwaffaq sent a letter to the Egyptian ruler demanding his resignation, which the latter predictably refused.  It is therefore in the context of the increased financial requirements that in 879, the supervision of the finances in Egypt and Syria passed to Abu Bakr Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Madhara'i, the founder of the al-Madhara'i bureaucratic dynasty that dominated the fiscal apparatus of Egypt for the next 70 years. Al-Muwaffaq nominated Musa ibn Bugha as governor of Egypt and sent him with troops to Syria.  Internal strife sapped Tulunid power. It also analyzes reviews to verify trustworthiness. Ibn Tulun fell ill on his return to Egypt, and was carried to Fustat on a wheeled vehicle. We work hard to protect your security and privacy. The Turkish generals usually remained close to the centre of power in Samarra, sending deputies to govern in their name.  For Egypt itself, his reign marks a turning point as the country for the first time since the Pharaohs ceased being a passive province subject to a foreign imperial power, and became once again a political actor in its own right. Through our article, you will know: The mosque is well known for its terrific architecture and unique Minaret. Reviewed in the United States on July 25, 2016. The Mosque of Ibn Tulun was built about two kilometers from the old community of Fustat (now Cairo) on a hill called Gebel Yashkur.
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